Column article ( skin disease )

Dogs and cats Unlike us humans is basically dressed not because the change in appearance should easy to find. However, whole body tends to be slow to notice the accident because it is covered with hair , visible Ru in when exiting symptoms, it seems many cases that are well underway in the skin and the body .

Dogs and cats itching want gesture, but you may notice a skin disease, have made, such as physical contact and grooming from the usual lever, rash crusts (propriety) , dandruff, hair loss, such as the skin of abnormally You can notice.
 * Crust is the so-called scab.

In considering a skin disease, important for the owner, a look at the state remains in the state of the skin yo Inoka or immediately the person who took him to hospital, good what, of course, whether or not life-threatening is one It's a concern .

 This time, I will explain the role of hair and skin and skin diseases .

The coat or the skin, barrier function to prevent loss of such intrusion and moisture of pathogens and toxic substances, such as thermoregulation function, various roles there you will As we praise "You look good", "Your skin is beautiful", and "Your hair is shiny", the condition of your hair and skin is an indicator of whether your body is working properly. In other words , it is a "barometer of health ."

Dogs and cats of the skin, about the weight of 15 20 is said to account for%. That turnover hear the word was I think that there is a thing, but the skin is reborn always a new one, the period in dogs and cats about 21 It is said that day. In addition, the coat repeatedly grows seasonally (moulting). This skin keratin and coat is made from a protein called "keratin," so dogs and cats need to get a lot of protein from their diet. In the cat about the protein from the diet 25 30 percent is used for the skin and the hair, there is also a report that.

Nutrients to keep the skin healthy

● Ingredients for skin and hair: Methionine cystine

● Epidermal growth (turnover), regulation of sebum secretion: Vitamin A

● Suppresses inflammation: Omega unsaturated fatty acids

● Hair quality: Omega- unsaturated fatty acid biotin

● Reduces dandruff and dry skin: biotin

● Coat color: Tyrosine copper


Skin looks like a thin piece of skin, but the epidermis, the dermis, the subcutaneous tissue Are you from one of the layers. The outermost epidermis directly protects the body from various foreign substances such as sunlight (ultraviolet rays), dust, bacteria and viruses. Sweat glands and blood vessels run in the dermis, giving elasticity to the skin. Inside, the subcutaneous tissue protects the body with subcutaneous fat and also serves as an energy store.

In this way, the skin acts as the outer wall of the body and protects the body from external stimuli on a daily basis.

However, eczema and dermatitis are caused by external stimuli that cannot be prevented even with this barrier function, or by stimuli caused by a specific cause . Specific symptom names include "rash" and "urticaria". there is. A rash is caused by contact with irritating or allergens such as shampoos , metals and clothing. Various things around us can be the cause. The urticaria particular food and medicine, such as infectious diseases are cause.


Allergic dermatitis

Allergic dermatitis in dogs

One of the most commonly known is atopic dermatitis.

Speaking this is simply a general term dermatitis with the capturing substance of allergen for pets or contact acute or chronically appearing inflammation upon to.

Atopic dermatitis in dogs belongs to hypersensitivity reaction type I, and the main symptoms are itching and hair loss is often seen .

In addition to atopic dermatitis, type I hypersensitivity reactions are well known and include the following.

・ Flea allergic dermatitis

・ Anaphylaxis

・ Urticaria, etc.


In this way was even heard the name in us human beings that is sick often, but look for the cause it is not easy. Veterinarian is first of all, the state of the skin in the eye to check, and on some cases that were carried out, such as blood tests, to identify the substance that caused the allergy.

Inspection method, in recent years has been very evolution, for a variety of allergens, to check whether the reaction it has become to be able to also. Treatment of atopic dermatitis, performs its removal from a specific allergen, followed by steroids and antihistamines agents taking, if you are complicated by other skin diseases, antibiotics such or antifungal selection of Will be.

What the owner can do is always think about the living environment of the pets they live with.

Where is the possibility of becoming an allergen? It may have been a contact with another child I met during the walk. Maybe it was a new snack I started giving. Be sure to talk to your veterinarian, even if you think about it. That is the fastest way to treatment .


Breeds susceptible to atopic dermatitis


Shih Tzu

French bulldog etc.


・ Cat hypersensitivity dermatitis

 It is so-called atopic dermatitis in cats, but it is called hypersensitivity dermatitis or atopic dermatitis because it has not been clarified in detail yet. The causes are roughly divided into three types: fleas, food, and environment, and symptoms such as itching, licking, hair loss, ulcers, and grainy dermatitis (aw-like dermatitis) are seen.

Cats that develop this disease can scratch or lick their skin with intense itching. Atopy-related bronchitis and asthma may occur along with skin symptoms.

 It's not a life-threatening illness, but persistent itching is an intolerable pain for cats. If you suspect this disease, consult with your veterinarian and actively treat and improve the breeding environment.


Fungi (molds) of skin diseases

・ Malassezia

If you are the owner, you may have heard it once.

The most typical ones are referred to as Malassezia in yeast be . This yeast is basically, in bacteria that are endemic prefer the ears of dogs and cats, ears are parasitic on the part called the ear canal you . Because the bacteria that resident from the usual is itself not that unusual is , but when those bacteria were grown for some reason, I get the first symptoms.

The degree of itchiness is proportional to the degree of proliferation , and the greater the degree of itchiness, the stronger the itchiness tends to be.

Dogs and cats itching likely to the ear legs to give a look with care, such as if you are not big please .

It is often inflammation of the ear is also proportional in accordance with the ratio of the growth, in the case of mild bleeding can be seen that is rare.

Another important point in suspecting Malassezia is color. In normal bacterial infections, yellowish ones are common , but in Malassezia furfuranitis, it is often black (brown-black).

Another characteristic of ear odors is that they are often surprisingly weak.

If went to the hospital, as the test first, as well as the check in the ear, after judging from such features from the earlier color and odor, the lesion part after taking out by cotton swab to check there are Malassezia microscopically I will. However, there are many other causes of otitis externa, so we will check each cause by comparing it with its characteristics.


Breeds susceptible to Malassezia dermatitis


Labrador retriever

Basset Hound etc.


· Skin fungal disease

There is a type of filamentous fungus called Arterinaria.

It is a common bacterium as an indigenous bacterium and was basically classified as a non- pathogenic miscellaneous bacterium, but it has been confirmed that it is pathogenic, and now it is named dermatophytosis as a fungal skin disease. I am.

One number that attention is required, the disease is also infected with the human being, it is one of the Zunoshisu (zoonoses). Special attention should be paid to those with children and elderly families. If you have a dog or cat with this disease and you see circular hair loss or inflammation on your body, see a person's dermatologist.

This fungus is, especially one under the age of kitten and puppy development in the rate high, in recent years immunity is impaired senior dogs senior cats tend to be severe, even.

Symptoms appear site, face around, ears, head, much like the previous and tail of Teashi, especially circular hair loss or pink rash often, such as can be seen is . In the early stages, or the like itching is mild, but if it was the case and severity of chronic case there is also itching out strongly you will.

As a preventive measure , it is important to keep the environment clean and the body clean. Regular grooming is also a place for owners to discover skin problems that are usually difficult to notice , so it is recommended that you do it regularly even if you are breeding indoors because you rarely go out .

Diagnosis includes a wood's lamp examination, which uses a special light, and a method of removing hair near the lesion and checking it with a microscope.

If you have dermatophytosis, treatment with antifungal drugs (internal or external use) or a drug bath is common.


Breeds susceptible to dermatophytosis

Jack Russell Terrier

Yorkshire terrier

Fox terrier etc.


Cat breeds susceptible to dermatophytosis

Long-haired species such as Persian cats


Bacterial skin disease

It mainly refers to what is called bacterial pyoderma.

I think it is easy to understand if you can imagine suppuration, that is, pus (sea) as an image.

Symptoms include red trickle down the eczema or black or subtype involves and itching,.


The pyoderma following There are three categories, can be divided by differences in the depth and distribution of lesions.

・ Superficial pyoderma and superficial pyoderma

・ Deep pyoderma

・ Pseudopyoderma

There are various causes of pyoderma, and it is basically triggered by a decrease in the barrier function of the skin . The barrier function of the skin involves indigenous bacteria that exist in the hair, epidermis, and epidermis and prevents the invasion of bacteria from the outside.

Frequently asked for is the fight between dogs each other and cats. When a fight damages the skin of the body, the barrier function of that part is reduced. In many cases, pyoderma develops from there due to the growth of bacteria.

In addition, senior dogs and cats also have weakened immunity, so the risk of developing the disease is higher than that of younger children. Even if you are of any age, if you are suffering from endocrine or autoimmune diseases, improper administration of steroids, or long-term abuse, the barrier function of the skin may deteriorate.

Be careful of dogs and cats that often lick the tips of their limbs . Grooming is a very important activity, but it can be inadequate, or it can be licked too much and even reduce the barrier function of the skin .


To prevent pyoderma, understand these things and basically protect the environment where the barrier function of the skin works normally. For example, if you want to prevent a decrease in immunity, your usual diet is important. An unbalanced diet caused by giving too much snack affects not only immunity but also nutrition such as hair coat. In addition to preventing fleas and mites, it is also important to control the temperature and humidity of the breeding environment appropriately according to the season. A child who often licks his toes may have some stress. If you have any behavior that interests you, we recommend that you consult your veterinarian as soon as possible.


After the onset of pyoderma, it can become serious, so it is most important to deal with it early to take care of the skin and maintain immunity .


Parasitic skin disease

It refers to skin diseases that are mainly caused by fleas, mites and insects.

The typical ones are as follows.


・ Scabies

It is caused by a tick called the itch mite family.

It grows by eating the debris from which the mite skin has peeled off. Female mites with eggs dig burrows in the stratum corneum of the epidermis and lay eggs. About feeding the skin and hatched larvae after days and then .

Of course, these can also be transmitted to people who come into contact with dogs, in which case there are scabs and itchy rashes on the arms, legs and abdomen, but strangely, dog itch mite breeds on human skin. Because you can't do anything, the mite symptoms that were occurring in the owner will soon subside after the dog's treatment.

In the case of dogs, as the symptoms progress, severe itching causes more body shaking and scabbing, and a large amount of dandruff and scabs may occur.


・ Ear scabies

Caused by the parasitism of the itch mite.

The mites are not infectious to humans, live their lives in their ears, and breed. Like normal itch mite, it grows by eating dregs in the ear, female mites lay eggs in the ear canal, and larvae become adults in about to weeks. Ear inflammation is usually bilateral, with early stages such as pink earwax. After that, dry powdery dark earwax may develop.

The degree of itch is also different, but if itching is strong, when you scratched yourself on the back side of the ear resulting sores and are or subtype , such as is it is also often seen.


・ Cheyletidae

It is caused by the infectious mite parasitism of the family Cheyletidae.

This mite is a large mite that is also predatory and preys on house dust mites. Also propagates to the person, or accompanied by a rash and itching were sub but arms and legs, but seen in the abdomen, it is not possible to breed in humans, the symptoms of owner and pet to cure also settled promptly.

Symptomatology in dogs also depends on the age of the infested offspring, and most often occur in young dogs, called younger dogs. On the contrary, it is rare for adult dogs to have symptoms, and in that case, they are often asymptomatic and already infested. Strong itching, scabs, etc. may come off, or the hair may partially disappear.


・ Scrub typhus

Caused by the parasitism of scrub typhus.

It parasitizes most mammals, including humans, and also parasitizes some birds.

Tsutsugamushi of parasitic, always summer-autumn , but occurs, be parasitic in the spring and the like is fit climatic conditions will unlikely be Rukoto. Symptoms, scabs and pale , such as rash also of skin sores of red occurs .  

There is no transmission from pets to humans, but humans can be directly infested, and those who are infested may have a severe painful or itchy rash on their limbs and torso.


・ Mange

Canine mange is caused by demodex folliculorum and other hair follicles .

There are various types of Demodex folliculorum, and there are differences in the places where they parasitize.

This development include immune deficiency, young dog in Oite has been that there is a genetic factor.

Demodex is, in the hair follicles and sebaceous living, even if late in until the adult mites has been to take the order of months.

During the period of transmission from dog to dog, it is often transmitted from the mother dog in the case of a newborn baby. The most common symptoms on the face and forelimbs are thought to be infections while the mother is breastfeeding Symptoms are divided into local and systemic types, and the changes that appear on the skin vary.

In the case of the local type , hair loss is seen in about places on the body, and in many cases, most of them disappear spontaneously in about to weeks In the case of the systemic type, hair loss is often observed in the same manner, but the difference from the local type is that excessive secretion of sebum is accompanied by skin bleeding and pyoderma. Chronic conditions can also cause severe itching and a terrible odor.

Mange is likely have to develop to any breed you will.


Breeds that are prone to develop canine mange

French bulldog


Yorkshire terrier

Shih Tzu etc.


・ Flea parasitism

If the skin becomes inflamed when fleas are infested, it may be due to flea allergic dermatitis or simply being bitten by a flea. There are many types of fleas, but cat fleas are the main fleas for both dogs and cats. 

By the way, fleas of the type called chigoe flea that parasitize humans do not basically parasitize dogs and cats.

There is a suitable temperature and humidity for flea life, and cat fleas will die in about two months if they cannot infest .

Dogs with atopic constitution are more likely to develop flea allergies.

The onset is generally from summer to autumn. The site where good symptoms appear, many on the rear side of the waist , rash accompanied by hair loss and itching, are those that had chronic also seen sticky lesions and a little greasy If you want to fester there are times when Ru.

Parasite inspection, visual inspection and magnifying glass is basically or microscope by the Ri confirmation of what is parasitic is done. Extermination drugs such as flea mites are used for treatment, but depending on the type of parasite and the breeding environment, the prognosis may be poor or it may be difficult to completely exterminate, so it can always be prevented with preventive drugs. Don't forget to do things.


Endocrine skin disease

Most are referred to as Cushing's syndrome mostly pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocortex , which is caused by abnormalities in the pituitary or adrenocortex. It is divided into cases that develop spontaneously and cases that develop due to the administration of drugs. 

Drug-induced causes occur when excess glucocorticoids are systemically administered or applied externally.

-year-old 16 -year-old of adult dogs are often seen in endocrine diseases. Cushing's syndrome does not always lead to skin diseases by itself, but it should be noted that it can be serious due to the complication of other diseases such as diabetes.

Symptoms include systemic symptoms and cutaneous symptoms. In the case of systemic symptoms, glucocorticoids affect the metabolism of many organs, so the symptoms are also diverse. The most common symptoms are pigmentation, thirst, polyuria, polyphagia, and inability to get up.

Symptoms begin to appear over a period of months to years, so it is often the case that the owner does not notice the change at first and then visits the hospital.

Most skin symptoms include hair loss and dry skin In the case of hair loss, it is also characteristic that it appears symmetrically except for the head and limbs. Skin stones may also be seen in the case of dryness. Itching often does not occur very often.

Tests for Cushing's syndrome include blood tests, biochemical tests , and X- ray tests depending on the symptoms and condition . In many cases, blood tests include an increase in neutrophils, a decrease in lymphocytes, and a decrease in eosinophils.


Breeds that are prone to develop Cushing's syndrome



Pomeranian etc.


Autoimmune skin disease


・ Pemphigus

Although relatively rare, pemphigus is a well-known skin disorder caused by self-immunity disorders, and these are divided into several types.

① deciduous of pemphigus      

It is the most common pattern of pemphigus. Most of the cases are adult dogs. Symptoms may vary, but the first change is flat and large pustules occurs, it pustules itself is fragile, as soon as sores or whether the subtypes will be. Another characteristic is that the keratin of the skin may peel off symmetrically around the eyes and nose, or a whitish scab may appear on the whole . Painful cracks may also be seen in the paws. Systemic symptoms are rare, and many points have been reported around the eyes, around the nose, and in specific areas such as the paws and nails.

② Erythematous pemphigus      

It is a subtype of deciduous pemphigus and is characterized by the fact that its symptoms occur only on the face.

Many begin around the nose and ears with the formation of pustules, which can cause sores, scabs , and discoloration. In addition, it is sensitive to sunlight, so special care should be taken when taking it to a normal breeding environment or hospital.

③ Pemphigus vulgaris      

Lord onset in adult dogs want to , but rarely There is also a report in less than year-old. It is characterized by the development of blisters, which rapidly form ulcers and scabs . Symptoms often appear in the oral cavity, nose, and nails. In addition, cases of occurrence in the inguinal region have also been reported.


Prognosis of these autoimmune skin disease is never 'm not very Ito. In general, deciduous pemphigus and erythematous pemphigus tend to be better than pemphigus vulgaris. Even so, because of autoimmune diseases, immunosuppressive drugs are often used for treatment, which is a heavy burden on the body. However, in rare cases, it recovers spontaneously. In most cases, the owner will notice that such an autoimmune skin disease is clearly abnormal, and the disease progresses quickly, so please contact the hospital immediately. If by sunlight is due to be taken into consideration irritable, you might utmost consideration is required.


・ Systemic lupus erythematosus

Although many of the detailed causes have not yet been elucidated, it is an autoimmune disease in which many factors are combined and related. In addition to the immune system, genetic factors and environmental factors are also included.

It mainly affects adult dogs, and it is also characterized by a higher incidence of males than females. In addition, dog breeds that are prone to develop the disease tend to have many collies and shepherds. Many systemic symptoms begin with fever and may be accompanied by arthritis and proteinuria.



Early detection, early treatment

There are various skin symptoms, but ulcers, pink rashes, and hair loss are seen, especially in the nose, in the ears, and around the groin. Lesions may be light sensitive and itchy to varying degrees. The prognosis symptoms and lesions, but is different, if it is detected early , the sooner the treatment the child can and, pain such as itching , you can deal with .


Care for skin that has become a skin disease

Depending on the symptoms of the skin disease, the dog's body odor may be annoying. It seems that the odor of pus from the affected area and the odor of sebum are often the cause. In this case, follow the veterinarian 's instructions and diligently wipe off the pus to make the affected area hygienic, which can improve to some extent.

After shampooing, it is also important to dry your skin and hair thoroughly. In a dry state, bacteria can easily grow from the skin and hair. Be sure to wipe your body with a dry towel to keep it clean, as the bacteria that increase in this way can also cause odors and worsen the affected area.



By the way

Can dogs and cats become heat rash ?

 Eczema, rash, heat rash, which is a skin disease with our human itching of the skin, to the dogs and cats be prickly heat Do you think that is?

Miliaria is a rash that occurs when a large amount of sweating causes the sweat ducts (kankan) that temporarily discharge sweat to become clogged, preventing the normal discharge of sweat. In medical terms, it is called heat rash.

Sweat can red trickle down the eczema in oyster easy to place, a strong itch or with , you may feel a tingling feeling and the feeling of heat.

 There are two types of sweat glands distributed on the skin: the "eccrine sweat glands" that sweat mainly to regulate body temperature and the "apocrine sweat glands" that are said to play the role of sex pheromones Human case of is , eccrine glands are distributed throughout the body, sweat but you can adjust the body sweat from the whole body when the hot time and exercise, dogs and cats is slight, such as meat balls of the soles of the feet It only exists in the place. Therefore, dogs and cats do not become heat rash.



In many cases of skin symptoms to see is hair removal and drying of the skin , such as is also the specialty of traditional Chinese medicine. If you have chronic skin symptoms, it is a good idea to use Chinese herbs.


To keep the skin healthy, it is important to provide good nutrition to the surface of the skin, that is, to improve blood flow on the surface of the skin.


Keishibukuryogan, which contains cinnamon bark that promotes the surface of the skin, is a popular Chinese medicine.




Keishi: Lauraceae, Resolving agent — divergent cold medicine warm

茯 蓓Bukuryo ): Polyporaceae water-utilizing moisturizer — water- utilizing antitumor flat

Peony bark: Peony, heat- removing drug — fresh- heat detoxifier / slight cold

MomoHitoshi (person in question): the rose family, Katsuchika瘀薬Katsuchi control through drugs flat (small poison)

Peony (peony): button family, Hokyo drugs Hoketsu drugs / fine cold


* Explanation of crude drugs

- Keishi is to improve blood circulation, blood stasis help the removal action of you .

China root diureses by transferring excess water into the blood, such as water in the digestive tract, joints, edema in muscles, and water between tissues .

· MomoHitoshi and peony epithelium, congestion and blood stasis , except for, jigs and the diseases associated with lesions caused by vein of congestive you . The peony skin, anti-inflammatory action there further you will .

peony in, there is action to relieve the abnormal muscle tension, jigs and abdominal pain and muscle pain and .



If you are prone to skin diseases due to some kind of infection, use a prescription containing a crude drug called Ougi. Astragalus improves immunity, but works especially near the skin.

One of the prescriptions containing Ogikenchuto is Ogikenchuto.

In the case of humans, it is a Chinese herbal medicine that is also used for atopic dermatitis.


In addition, the three combinations of "Kumasasa, Matsuba, and Ginseng" also improve blood flow and help improve the skin. In fact, it's also the combination used to improve thoroughbred fur.





Astragalus (mystery): bean family, Hokyo drugs Hokiyaku / fine temperature

Keishi: Lauraceae, Resolving agent — divergent cold medicine warm

Peony (peony): button family, Hokyo drugs Hoketsu drugs / fine cold

Dainatsume (too much): buckthorn family, Hokyo drugs Hokiyaku / temperature

Ginger (business conditions): ginger family, the solution table drugs divergence wind Samuyaku / fine temperature

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra): bean family, Hokyo drugs Hokiyaku / flat

(Separate package)

Candy sugar (Ito) Nikawaame ( favor : sticky rice, Uruchi, wheat, malt Hokyo drugs Hokiyaku / temperature


* Explanation of crude drugs

Astragalus is used abnormality such as Mizudoku to the skin accumulates and is, or compensate for the healthy at the same time, the action have to give them immunity you will .

Keishi will improve blood circulation, established a body part, antipyretic, analgesic, antispasmodic, in addition to the stomach action, antibacterial action, has anti-allergic effects have been reported you .

・ Since peony and licorice have the effect of healing spastic pain in smooth muscle and skeletal muscle, peony and licorice are often used in combination. The peristalsis of the intestinal tract becomes abnormal, jigs and a state in which the stomach is stretched to you.

· Dainatsume will ease the tension, Hoketsu, tonic, diuretic action there you will .

・ Ginger warms the surface of the body and the body. It also improves stomach function and removes excess water. Stomach鎮嘔action mower you will .

- licorice established a gastrointestinal function, retrieve the tension Ri you. Complement the moisture of the lung have you. In addition to detoxification drugs, the poisoning of food, harmonize the various drugs to you.

・ The combination of jujube, ginger, and licorice has been used extensively since ancient times, and is said to be useful for adjusting the autonomic nervous system and restoring natural healing power.

candy sugar , the action there to compensate for the physical strength Ri you.


In addition, in order to select the correct Chinese medicine, it is necessary to consider the constitution of the pet. If you want to use Chinese medicine, please consult with a specialist.